H1N1 Influenza Center

From the Publishers of the New England Journal of Medicine

From the Archive From the Archive From the Archive

These articles from our archive include descriptions of avian influenza A, the 1976 swine flu epidemic, the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic, and even the influenza epidemic of 1837. Also included are review articles on the management of seasonal influenza.

Prevention and Treatment of Seasonal Influenza
W.P. Glezen
N Engl J Med 2008;359:2579-85, Dec 11, 2008
Full Text | PDF | Audio Full Text

Current Concepts: Update on Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection in Humans
Writing Committee of the Second World Health Organization Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus
N Engl J Med 2008;358:261-273, Jan 17, 2008
Full Text | PDF | Supplementary Material

The Origins of Pandemic Influenza — Lessons from the 1918 Virus
R.B. Belshe
N Engl J Med 2005;353:2209-2211, Nov 24, 2005
Full Text | PDF

Current Concepts: Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans
The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5
N Engl J Med 2005;353:1374-1385, Sep 29, 2005
Full Text | PDF

Drug Therapy: Prophylaxis and Treatment of Influenza
R. Gordon Douglas, Jr.
N Engl J Med 1990;322:443-450, Feb 15, 1990
PDF

A Controlled Trial of Amantadine and Rimantadine in the Prophylaxis of Influenza A Infection
R. Dolin and Others
N Engl J Med 1982;307:580-584, Sep 2, 1982
PDF | PDF of Related Editorial

The Swine-Influenza Decision
S.C. Schoenbaum and Others
N Engl J Med 1976;295:759-765, Sep 30, 1976
PDF

Influenza — 1918, a Revisit?
L. Weinstein
N Engl J Med 1976;294:1058-1060, May 6, 1976
PDF

Thou Shalt Be Vaccinated
F.J. Ingelfinger
N Engl J Med 1976;294:1060-1061, May 6, 1976
PDF

Therapeutic Efficacy of Amantadine HCl and Rimantadine HCl in Naturally Occurring Influenza A2 Respiratory Illness in Man
W.L. Wingfield and Others
N Engl J Med 1969;281:579-584, Sep 11, 1969
PDF

Vaccines in Influenza
W.H. Watters
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1919;181:727-731, Dec 25, 1919
PDF

What is Influenza?
G.A. Soper
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1919;181:635-641, Nov 27, 1919
PDF

Clinical Observations in Recent Epidemic of Influenza
S.W. Myers
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1919;180:98-101, Jan 23, 1919
PDF | PDF of Related Editorial

The Epidemic of Influenza
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1918;179:430-4, Sep 26, 1918
PDF

Practical Observations on the Epidemic Influenza, as it Appeared in Cheltenham, Eng., in the Beginning of the Present Year
J. M’Cabe
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1837;17:309-313, Dec 20, 1837
PDF


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19 Responses »

  1. Thanks for this update. I found it very usefull.
    I am anesthesiologist and i work in the intesinve care unit in a large hospital in Bogota,Colombia.
    My concern is that we dont have PCR analisis for viruses, so we dont know what kind of strains we have in Colombia.
    We may have had this striain in Colombia before without notice it!!!
    When i read your article, you describe how you made your diagnosis: it was a not tipificable strain of influenza.
    It is going to be very dificult to achieve a global control of this pandemic (almost pandemic) problem, if we dont have the opportunity to make a diagnosis in 3 world countries.
    Thanks for the information,

  2. THANKS A LOT FOR THIS HISTORY REVIEW OF WHAT INFLUENZA INFECTION IS.

    I´M INTERNIST AND PROFFESOR OF INTERNAL MEDICNE AT LAMAR UNIVERSITY OF GUADALAJARA AND I´M WORKING AT ZOQUIPAN HOSPITAL IN ZAPOPAN JALISCO FOR THE MEDICAL EMERGENCY OF THIS INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC THAT WE HAVE HERE IN JALISCO AND ALL ARROUND MEXICO.

    I REALLY THINK THAT BEYOND THE SEVERAL AND DIFFERENT MEDICAL OPINIONS ABOUT THIS PANDEMIC, THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS THAT WE HAVE LEARNED AN WE WILL LEARN A LOT ABOUT OUR LOCAL AND GLOBAL EXPERIENCE, SO TO GIVE IT MORE FORCE OR EFFECTIVENESS IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT OUR KNOWLEDGE BE REINFORCE BY ALL THESE AMAZING ARTICLES.

    THANKS FOR THE INFORMATION

  3. The H1N1 Influenza Center is a great source for me.. because lately i am often interviewed about the events surrounding the Influenza Virus Scare… the possibility of a pandemic due to the emergence of a novel influenza virus brought about by a reassortment of various strains from human, avian & swine flu viruses.

    As a Wellness Specialist, i’ve learned so much through this site. I often lecture to various groups, medical & non-medical.. about Smoking & Air Pollution, Stress Management, Female Sexual Dysfunction & other topics relevant to our ever present condition of Lifestyle challenges & Environmental Threat.Lately, i do discuss about the much-talked about Swine origin Influenza A (H1) Virus.. or known in the news.. as the A(H1N1) Influenza Virus.

    I have a Radio Program too..here in the Philippines.. called “Wellness on the Air” every Saturday at 10pm to 11pm. I discussed about various illnesses depending on our scheduled topic for the week.

    Again i Thank You for all the materials you have shared with us.

  4. Thank You for these papers about the swine influenza virus A (H1N1). They will be very helpful particularly for the health professionals. I hope that in future NEJM issues you can include immunological aspects of the disease, all that it is known about the biology, molecular biology and genetics of this virus.

    Thank You again.

    Jorge Zavala López
    México City

  5. Thank you for great site. The index case of the Singapore General Hospital SARS outbreak in 2003 was at the Dept of Surgery where I still work. The speed of dessimnination of information and the level of preparedness has significantly improved between these two outbreaks. At the beginning of the SARS outbreak we functioned on very little scientific information and could only depend on basic principles and discipline to pull us through. In many ways, the intenational community is more prepared for pandemics than at any other time in history although much more can still be done. Your site is an important contribution to this effort.

  6. I do thank you the oportunity of reading the papers of our old colleagues, also concerned about flu a long time ago. It brings us the same concerns we are living now, and the advice to pay attention to the signs of pandemic with very great precaution.
    This is the XXI century and we now have the information and medications to fight this war they didn´t dream about in those years. We have the internet and the value of sharing experiences all over the world, as a huge team of doctors working together in the same challenge. And that is a really nice feeling, isn´t it?

    Maria Inês Leal
    Lisboa, Portugal.

  7. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR THESE MATERIALS.
    AS A MEDICAL STUDENT, I REALLY THANK NEJM QUICK REACTION TO THE OUTBREAK OF H1N1 INFLUENZA.FROM THE ARCHIVES,WE CAN LEARN A LOT OF USEFUL INFORMATION ABOUT THE SWINE INFLUENZA AND TREATMENT EXPERIENCE.WITH THIS, WE CAN FIGHT AGAINST THE H1N1 INFLUENZA MORE CAMELY AND WISELY. MY GIRLFRIEND YAOYAO IS DOING SOME RESEARCH WORK IN NEW YORK IN US NOW. I HOPE SHE WILL BE OK NOW. ALL OF OUR MEDICAL WORKERS SHOULD SHARE INFORMATION AND EXPERIENCE TO FIGHT AGAINST THE H1N1 INFLUENZA.
    THANKS AGAIN.

  8. I should also thank you a lot for these papers, especially those old ones which show us that even in mid 18th and early 19th physicians tried to monitor influenza epidemies and published their data.

  9. I want to thank you for this information, it is useful to know more about this epidemic.
    I am a student at Lamar university of Guadalajara Jalisco Mexico.
    I want to be in contact, I want to learn more about it.

    thank you

  10. As a medical student at the University of Illinois in Peoria, IL, it’s really helpful to be able to add to what I learned about the influenza A virus and how it causes swine flu. Thanks. Please keep updating everyone.

  11. About the public reaction during this flu epidemic situation, it was adequate, the CDC and Health World Organization, local health institution and communication media produce an alarm situation and immediate diffusion of primary prophylactic actions that was enough to decrease “the initial epidemic flu wave”. When Mexico announced the 2500th case the mortality was around 150, this means a 6% of mortality in one month more or less, in young adults, some of them with other underlying medical conditions (60 deaths for each 1000 in several weeks).
    If this epidemic phenomenon had occurred without all this warning the number of cases could be millions and the number of deaths thousands. The fast way the internet and television system disseminated the information has played a very important role in the reduction of the morbidity too. In previous flu epidemic situation as occurred in 1918-1919 the world didn’t count on scientific technology (in 3 months we will have a developed swine-flu-vaccine), or on the communication system we can rely on today.
    Thanks for all this wonderful material and information to the New England Journal of Medicine.
    Karim R. Harfouche De Lima
    Internal Medicine (Texas Tech University-USA)

  12. Thank you very much for all these materials, which I have been using to make aware the health care personnel of different tires in Bangladesh through workshop. Information about the quick reaction to outbreak of swian influenza A H1N1, management and prevention guideline helping us a lot to formulate a prevention strategy for our airports, land ports, sea ports as well as country in general.
    I do believe we will be getting these kinds of updates in future.

    Thanks Again
    Dr. Khondoker Mahbuba Jamil
    MBBS, MPhil( Virology)
    (Medical Doctor and Virologist)
    Senior Scientific Officer
    National Influenza Centre &
    Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research( IEDCR), Dhaka

    Member, National Planning team for Preparedness of Pandemic Influenza
    Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh

  13. Greetings from Mexico. I´m Internist and infectologists. Working in the City of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. I believe that infection with influenza A (H1N1) is underdiagnosed by variable clinical spectrum, can show only sudden fever and other symptoms added to over time. I think the publication of documents to improve their theoretical knowledge and clinical application will help early detection of the disease with an impact on patient morbidity and contacts. Thank you

  14. The recent measures taken by the federal government in Mexico helped limit the H1N1 epidemic. After the first few days there appeared to be an overreaction to those of us in large academic referral centers, in spite of that came an escalation to the containment measures.

    Now the aftershock of the containment enforcement needs a damage control handling.
    Several hundred thousand jobs are lost due to an already weakend economy. Economic losses are quantious and long duration. The excessive media coverage helped create panic and misinformed population. The mortality associated with this weak virulent low mortality strain did not undergo a risk analysis to assess the negative impact on the whole country´s well being, that is also a marker of the population´s health.

    Now Mexico and its population, as a country, is left alone and will take responsability for decisions taken to protect the world for a possible hypothetical highly lethal epidemic. We hope other countries will follow the example in spite of the negative implications associated with the containment actions.

    Luis M. Argote-Greene MD FCCP
    Thoracic Surgeon
    Mexico City, Mexico

  15. Thanks you every much for all these materials.
    This information helpful for understanding the pandemic, particulary for the health professsionals.
    Again Thanks.

    Hospital Fray Antonio Alcalde
    Guadalajara Jalisco Mexico.

  16. Thank God, it’s Great!!
    First I saw old journal about influenza
    Thanks NEJM

    Dr. Sumardi MD (Internist,Pulmonologist)
    Pulmonology Division
    Departement Of Internal Medicine
    School of Medicine
    Gadjah Mada University
    Sardjito General Hospital
    Yogyakarta
    Indonesia

  17. Sirs
    It’s is a huge work of the New England J. of Medicine bringing to us all information about this so far epidemics cases of H1N1 virus infection, which will be certainly considered by WHO a pandemic disease.
    I am a senior consultant for several hospitals around the city of Rio de Janeiro and a Professor Honoiris Causa of the University of Nova Iguacu (UNIG) and found an eagerness of my students to know more and more about this epidemic cases. I hope that the diffusion of information will pressure the most rich countries to speed up the development of a vaccine and new anti-virals drugs be developed. I am glad to be a life-time subscriber of the NEJM and can keep uptodate with all information that I can get even at 70 y.old.
    Congratulation to the editorial board of the NEJM.
    Carlos Alberto Leite,MD,Ph.D,FACP
    Internal Medicine and diagnosis
    Rio de Janeiro
    Brazil

  18. Very usefull. especialy in the recent year

  19. thanks for these information, it is very useful for countries as mine, let us known about the story of influenza….thanks again
    i am an emergency medicine resident from peru and also chief of residents of the Grau emergency Hospital from lima-Peru.